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Jeffrey S. Brooks
9th June 2011, 01:10 AM
Video: Blending Naptha with vegetable oil to make VO Blend Diesel Fuel
Making vegetable oil blend Diesel Fuel (VOBDF) by blending Naptha with vegetable oil
YouTube - ‪Blending Naptha with vegetable oil to make VO Blend Diesel Fuel‬‏ (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ylmHqTnbhvA)

From Wikipedia:
Naphtha normally refers to a number of different flammable liquid mixtures of hydrocarbons, i.e. a distillation product from petroleum or coal tar boiling in a certain range and containing certain hydrocarbons, a broad term encompassing any volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.

Naphtha is used primarily as feedstock for producing a high octane gasoline component (via the catalytic reforming process). It is also used in the petrochemical industry for producing olefins in steam crackers and in the chemical industry for solvent (cleaning) applications.

Production of naphtha in refineries:
Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil. It is a liquid intermediate between the light gases in the crude oil and the heavier liquid kerosene. Naphthas are volatile, flammable and have a specific gravity of about 0.7. The generic name naphtha describes a range of different refinery intermediate products used in different applications. To further complicate the matter, similar naphtha types are often referred to by different names...

Naphthas are also used in other applications such as:
* (as an unprocessed component - in contrast to reforming above) in the production of petrol/motor gasoline.
* industrial solvents and cleaning fluids
* an oil painting medium
* the sole ingredient in the home cleaning fluid Energine, which has been discontinued.
* an ingredient in shoe polish
* an ingredient in some lighter fluids for wick type lighters such as Zippo lighters.
* an adulterant to petrol
* a fuel for portable stoves and lanterns, sold in North America as white gas or Coleman fuel.

Other names of Naphtha:
Shellite (Australia), also known as white gas (North America), white spirit or Coleman fuel, is a water white liquid with a hydrocarbon odour. Shellite has a freeze point less than -30 C (-22 F), and a boiling point of 47 C (117 F). The composition of shellite is 95% paraffins and naphthenes, less than 5% aromatic hydrocarbons and less than 0.5% benzene. It is highly flammable and due to its low flashpoint is used in many low pressure camping stoves. Shellite is also a fast drying solvent used for cleaning metal, hard plastic and painted surfaces. Ronsonol is a brand name used in North America, and is marketed principally as a refill fluid for cigarette lighters and has a flashpoint of about 6 C (43 F).

Health and safety considerations:
Forms of naphtha may be carcinogenic, and frequently products sold as naphtha contain some impurities, which may also have deleterious properties of their own. [1] Like many hydrocarbon products, because they are products of a refractory process where a complex soup of chemicals is broken into another range of chemicals, which are then graded and isolated mainly by their specific gravity and volatility, there is a range of distinct chemicals included in each product. Almost all volatile, lipid-soluble organic chemicals cause general, nonspecific depression of the central nervous system or general anesthesia. The OSHA PEL TWA = 100 parts-per-million (ppm); Health Hazards/Target Organs = eyes, skin, RS, CNS, liver kidney. Symptoms of acute exposure are dizziness and narcosis with loss of consciousness.

Physical properties:
Light naphtha, a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons having from five to nine carbon atoms per molecule. Heavy naphtha, a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons having from seven to nine carbons per molecule.[1] Molecular weight range is 100-215 g/mol; specific gravity range is 0.75-0.85 g/cm3; boiling point range is 320-430F; vapor pressure is < 5 mm Hg (< 5 torr). Naphthas are insoluble in water; colorless (kerosene odor) or red-brown (aromatic odor) liquid; incompatible with strong oxidizers.

* Paraffin content (volume percent)
* Isoparaffin content (only in a PIONA analysis)
* Olefins content (volume percent)
* Naphthenes content (volume percent)
* Aromatics content (volume percent)

Paraffinic naphthas:
Generally speaking, less dense ("lighter") naphthas will have a higher paraffin content. These are therefore also referred to as paraffinic naphtha. The main application for these naphthas is as a feedstock in the petrochemical production of olefins. This is also the reason they are sometimes referred to as "light distillate feedstock" or LDF (these naphtha types can also be called "straight run gasoline"/SRG or "light virgin naphtha"/LVN)...

The "heavier" or rather denser types are usually richer in naphthenes and aromatics and therefore also referred to as N&A's. These can also be used in the petrochemical industry but more often are used as a feedstock for refinery catalytic reformers where they convert the lower octane naphtha to a higher octane product called reformate. Alternative names for these types are Straight Run Benzene (SRB) or Heavy Virgin Naphtha (HVN).

Heavy naphthas
Coleman Camp Fuel, also known as white gas, is a common naphtha fuel used in many lanterns and torches

Other applications / descriptions

[1] NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards from the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health >>
Naphtha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naphtha)

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The point of this experiment and video is simply to demonstrating that some solvents will dissolve readily into WVO. It is purely of academic interest and is in no way an attempt to encourage its use or recommend its use over petroleum distillates. I am just posting these experimental blending videos to show that there is a range of solvents that could be blended with waste oils to make diesel fuel. It is up to the user to decide whether they wish to further the experiment by running it on an engine. If you do, then please post your findings on this thread.

The point is making diesel fuel out of waste oils is a form of recycling. And, there are many people making viable and sustainable diesel fuels by blending various solvents with various waste oils. Therefore, there is no reason why the solvents used to thin waste oil need not also be recycled, therefore it is conceivable that someone may come across some recycled solvent and consider using it as a solvent for making diesel fuel by blending it with waste oils. Thus, diesel fuel made from blending waste oils with waste solvents is essentially recycling, therefore it is fundamentally a green activity

And, anyone engaged in blending or making biodiesel should most definitely wear protective gear, such as: safety goggles or shield, respirator with activated charcoal cartridge, chemical apron, and gloves, have a water hose under pressure and a fire extinguisher handy whenever processing fuel. That process should also be done in a well-ventilated shed or out-building or outside away from buildings, because the biodiesel process has gotten away from some people, exploded and caused severe burns on major portions of the operator's body and set the house and even neighborhood on fire. However, there is no report yet of a blender having the same accident, but blending is nonetheless a potential hazard.

Please dispose of your waste products responsibly.

froggo
10th June 2011, 01:02 AM
Hi JSB,

I'm a user of the coleman camping equipment mainly stoves and lanterns. I've often used shellite because the coleman fuel is much more expensive here in Oz.
I made up a test batch of wvo and shellite in a bottle and found that a mix of 10% shellite and 90% wvo made a nice mix dissolving some high melt point fats in winter.

The problem was the cost of shellite v's RUG, ULP as a blend agent.

God bless, froggo

Jeffrey S. Brooks
10th June 2011, 01:28 AM
Thanks, froggo, for reporting your blending with shellite. Yes, Coleman fuel is expensive, but part of the point of this video series is to show that there is a wide range of solvents that will work for thinning waste oils, so if one had a can of Coleman fuel sitting in the shed for 20 years, and you had no plan on using it, then one could always throw it into a batch of fuel blend.

Also, here in the USA, cities often have a place where household solvents can be disposed of. The the cost of disposal of those solvents to the city can be costly, so the city often allows the solvents to be taken away by individuals who will use them. So, a blender could help the city out by taking many gallons of solvent away for blending.

Note: shellite is Naptha

tbird650
11th June 2011, 12:07 AM
I made some enquiries regarding cost just yesterday. I can get it for $2.34 per litre when 91 unleaded is $1.99 - $2.05
So it's a difference of 30c or so per litre.
This is at the 208L rate.
At that figure, it's almost starting to make sense and cost is closer than I thought. I wonder if the benefit is big enough to warrant the extra money plus haulage hassle? Pump gas is easy, always available and can get any amount, even a few litres at a time.

tillyfromparadise
11th June 2011, 12:12 AM
I wonder if the benefit is big enough to warrant the extra money plus haulage hassle? And what benefit would that be?

tbird650
11th June 2011, 10:38 AM
The benefits are speculative and not tested. They seem to fall into 3 categories.

1/ Cleaning action as a detergent.
This (http://www.biofuelsforum.com/svo_users/9269-polymerisation_inside_ip.html) is what may be improved with a solvent that is friendly but not TOO aggressive. I'm all for settling as Jeffrey does and I've done it for a number of years. It's a step in the right direction but I feel is not the complete answer. I speculate that, a carefully selected thinner with qualities that benefit more, would be more helpful than a thinner that is simply dictated by cost.

2/ Stability at high temperatures
There's has been some reports of vaporizing in the fuel lines causing bubbles so given that Naptha can have a boiling point of up to 200'C it may be more stable.

3/ Performance
Does it give more power or is it less? Are hot restarts improved over ULP? Certainly my Hiace has dramatically improved its' hot restart performance since reverting to the non-return filter head as is the stock item. It's not as good as the my friends Hiace who runs normal dino so I wonder if there's a way to improve by swapping thinner?

Please comment. All opinions are both valid and valuable.
Thanks.

PS. Jeffrey, have you tested naptha in the van and done enough miles to give even a preliminary evaluation?

Jeffrey S. Brooks
12th June 2011, 01:43 AM
The benefits are speculative and not tested. They seem to fall into 3 categories.

1/ Cleaning action as a detergent.
This (http://www.biofuelsforum.com/svo_users/9269-polymerisation_inside_ip.html) is what may be improved with a solvent that is friendly but not TOO aggressive. I'm all for settling as Jeffrey does and I've done it for a number of years. It's a step in the right direction but I feel is not the complete answer. I speculate that, a carefully selected thinner with qualities that benefit more, would be more helpful than a thinner that is simply dictated by cost.I agree tbird650, there are a lot of consideration involved in choosing a solvent for waste oil blended diesel fuels. Cost is the primary factor that drives most of us, after all cost got most of us into waste oil-based fuels to begin with. Most solvents are just petroleum distillates, which means they pretty much act in the same way gasoline does. Turpenes pose a very interesting alternative to petroleum, because non-petroleum producing nations could harvest trees and/or other plants that produce significant amounts of turpenes. For instance citrus is a significant source of turpenes, so are eucalyptus trees.


2/ Stability at high temperatures
There's has been some reports of vaporizing in the fuel lines causing bubbles so given that Naptha can have a boiling point of up to 200'C it may be more stable.Yes, those who have heated fuel systems need to have something that is more stable at high temps than petrol; however, petrol and naptha are virtually the same thing. If you need a high boiling point solvent for blending, then kerosene would be your choice.


3/ Performance
Does it give more power or is it less? Are hot restarts improved over ULP? Certainly my Hiace has dramatically improved its' hot restart performance since reverting to the non-return filter head as is the stock item. It's not as good as the my friends Hiace who runs normal dino so I wonder if there's a way to improve by swapping thinner?Since Naptha and petrol are virtually the same substance, then I would expect they would behave much the same way when blended with waste oils.


Please comment. All opinions are both valid and valuable.
Thanks.

PS. Jeffrey, have you tested naptha in the van and done enough miles to give even a preliminary evaluation?No, I have not run significant quantities of naptha in waste oil blends in my diesel engine; however, I plan to because naptha is a common parts cleaning solution used by most garages in the USA, this means that I could recycle the parts cleaning solutions when the garages are done with it.

tbird650
12th June 2011, 09:54 AM
Parts washing fluid! That's brilliant thinking there Jeffrey. Will investigate the possibility.
I had heard that water based cleaning fluids were becoming popular. Hope not.
Please keep us posted on progress. Also, do any other sources of waste thinner come to mind?

Kero used to be cheaper than petrol at one time. Not anymore and almost all the service stations have removed their kero pumps as well.
Had a call from a friend saying he's got 10L of jet fuel for me to try.

gilfish
12th June 2011, 09:29 PM
Watch out with the cleaning fluid as a lot are apply and hose off and may have a co-solvent additive ( glycerol ? )
Naphtha is a unique substance it may be like petrol but far more complex, I used to work at the petrol refinery here and they have 2 frac plants from which they got raw naphtha they only sold 3 products LPG,crude oil and Naphtha. I believe/assume this is the product oil companies closely guard you cant buy a 205l drum of it anywhere here. if you could get the raw stuff you could mix it with your bio to lower the viscosity and run it in piezoelectric injector diesels, as well as make your own winter diesel and all manner of solvents/thinners. its why they wont let it go. I blend with KH wax grease remover it is almost 100% naphtha just a little toluene added have a look at the msds for it let us know if someone can find something cheaper but as good andy

Jeffrey S. Brooks
13th June 2011, 01:31 AM
Parts washing fluid! That's brilliant thinking there Jeffrey. Will investigate the possibility... Also, do any other sources of waste thinner come to mind?...Yes, last week I was looking at the small engine repair shop next door where they service a large number of lawn mowers and other two-stroke engines. I realized that the most common problem for two-stroke engines is they are not often used, so the gas goes sower. All the small engine repair people do is dump the old gas, and put in fresh gas. So, all we need to do is recycle their barrel of sower two-stroke gas as a thinner for our waste oil diesel